Agricultural Growing Media

Growing media are one of the most widely used materials for growing greenhouse crops. With many different formulations available to growers, it can be a challenge to choose the best blend to use. Understanding the composition, functions and intended use can make the selection process easier.






Growing media components are either organic or inorganic. Organic components include peat moss, bark, coconut coir, rice hulls, etc. Inorganic components include perlite, pumice, vermiculite, sand, hydrogel, etc. Some of these components hold water on their surface, others hold water within their structure, while others hold little compared to other components.

There are also components, such as perlite, that hold very little water, if any.  Keep in mind that a specific type of ingredient can vary in its water holding capacity and physical structure, depending on its origin and how it is processed. For example, bark can vary greatly in its source and structure depending on how it is processed, aged, composted and screened. This is also true for peat moss. Light brown, fibrous peat moss has a porous structure and can hold up to 16 times its weight in water.

However, if this same peat moss is processed into fine particles, the available water can be cut in half and the air porosity decreases dramatically. If you blend your own growing medium, your source materials should be consistent to produce a quality and predictable growing medium. It is important to know the structure as well as the chemical and physical properties of the ingredients you use to be sure that the growing medium blend you produce is the same, batch after batch.


“Common organic components used in growing media. Starting in the upper left, going clockwise: bark, sphagnum peat moss and coir. Source: Premier Tech Horticulture.”


Inorganic components

“Common inorganic components used in growing media. Starting in the upper left, going clockwise: vermiculite, perlite and rice hulls. Source: Premier Tech Horticulture.”


Physical Characteristics:

While there are a number of laboratory tests for the physical characterization of growing media, the three most familiar measurements are bulk density (weight per volume), water holding capacity and air porosity.

Water holding capacity is the volume percentage of water retained after a saturated growing medium is allowed to drain.

Air porosity is a measurement of the volume of pore space occupied by air after a saturated growing medium is allowed to drain. For the most part, packaged growing media products have a low bulk density, since the majority are made with a base of sphagnum peat moss and have a higher water holding capacity.  Bark-based media are heavyweight products that are suitable when high drainage and container stability are required. Both products typically have good air porosity which is in a range of 10% – 18% by volume for most growing media.


Chemical Characteristics:

Two important measurements for growing media are pH and E.C. (Electrical Conductivity). pH is a determination of how acidic or basic a substance or solution is. E.C. reading measures the ability of soil solution to carry an electrical current and is an indication of the amount of nutrients available for crops to take up.For general purpose growing media, the ideal pH range is between 5.2 – 6.2 with a target of 5.8 when saturated. Desirable E.C. for general purpose growing media is between 1.0-2.0 mmhos/cm.

For seed germination and rooting of cuttings, the desired pH range will be slightly lower, between 5.0 – 6.0, with a target wet-out at 5.6. This pH range is slightly lower since pH can tend to rise during use from minimal fertilizer applications and water alkalinity of irrigation water from constant misting.  Desirable E.C. for germination and propagation growing media is between 0 – 1.0 mmhos/cm.

E.C. measurement in mud growing media

“A combination E.C. and pH meter is used to measure these parameters of a growing
medium sample. Source: Premier Tech Horticulture.”

Most commercial growing media are pH-adjusted with either calcitic or dolomitic limestone and contain a balanced starter fertilizer to help plants acclimate after planting. It is generally recommended to begin fertilization once new plant leaves begin to emerge and new roots develop.

The amount of fertilizer and frequency of applications will vary based on the crop type, stage of development, container size and frequency of plain water applications. Keep in mind that some ingredients used in formulating growing media may contain mineral salts, such as coir. It is recommended that coir should be leached thoroughly before use to reduce salt levels and potentially high nutrients (e.g.: potassium, chloride, sodium).

The same is true for bark, since aging and composting can release undesirable elements. To be sure, laboratory tests are recommended to check pH, E.C. and individual nutrient levels.

Following are some of the physical and chemical properties of PRO-MIX products:

PRO-MIX products


Active Ingredients:

Something unique to the line of PRO-MIX products is that they are available as standard products or blended with active ingredients, which include BIOFUNGICIDE*, MYCORRHIZAE or both.

BIOFUNGICIDE* is a bacterium that suppresses plant root pathogens that cause damping off, such as FusariumPythium and Rhizoctonia. This offers growers an alternative to applying chemical fungicides to control these root diseases.

MYCORRHIZAE is a beneficial fungus that attaches to plant root systems and acquires nutrients and water for the plant so that it grows healthier, faster and have a more prolific flower and fruit production. For benefits from both of these active ingredients, look for PRO-MIX products formulated with BIOFUNGICIDE* + MYCORRHIZAE.


Understand the symptoms of iron deficiency in plants – Improve soil factors

Understand the symptoms of iron deficiency in plants - Improve soil factors
Iron is an element that is abundant in the soil, but sometimes there may be some causing agents that reduce the absorption of the element in the plant; jaundice(yellowness) or chlorosis created in some plants causes the plant to die, and if these symptoms develop & if you can’t take action in time to treat it, you definitely lose your plant.Importance of iron in plants?Iron is a necessary nutrient for all plant functions. Many of the vital functions of the plant, such as the production of chlorophyll and enzymes, nitrogen fixation and growth and metabolism, all depend on the iron element. Without iron, the plant can not function properly.Identification of Iron Deficiency Symptoms in Plants?The most obvious symptom of iron deficiency in plants, are chlorosis, or jaundice (yellowish leaves )of the plant.   When the leaves get yellowish due to iron deficiency, the veins of the leaves can still stay green. Chlorosis usually start from the tip of the new leaves and eventually reach the older leaves.Other symptoms of iron deficiency may include poor growth, and falling of the leaves but symptoms should always be accompanied by yellowing of the leaves.The most important causes of iron deficiency in plantsNormally there is an abundance of Iron on the soil & The deficiency of Iron in the plants are rarely due to lack of iron in the soil and most likely due to a causing factor that iron  is not being absorbed by that plant.Iron deficiency Chlorosis in the iron usually is cause by one of the four reason:

  • High  pH in the soil
  • The soil is mostly of Clay type
  • Density or excessive moisture content
  • High phosphorus in soil

Correction of Iron Deficiency in Plants

Acidity should be corrected if iron is not absorbed from the soil due to the high acidity of the soil. To make sure, first do a soil test to see how acidic your soil is. If the pH is above 7, the ability to absorb iron in the plant decreases.

If the cause of iron deficiency is clay soil, it means that there is not enough organic matter in the soil. The shortage of organic matter causes the plant to not get enough iron from clay soils. Minor elements (elements that are required in a small amount) are needed in organic matter, which is necessary for the iron to absorb the soil through the root. If clayey soil causes cholosis, the clay soil improves by adding organic materials such as turbot moss, pit moss and compost.

If the problem is of a density or high moisture content of the soil, the roots can not get enough air to absorb iron. If the soil is too wet, soil drainage should be improved. Correction is harder if the soil is dense and compact. If you can not modify drainage of dense soil, you can use iron chelate as spray or soil supplement.

This will increase the content of iron of the soil and increase the amount of iron available to the plant. Perhaps in this way, the lack of iron absorption from the soil is offset. If the chlorosis problem is due to a  high phosphorus in the soil, the problem can be corrected by reducing phosphorus. High phosphorus causes the plant to not absorb enough iron from the soil. This is usually due to the use of high phosphorus-containing fertilizers . You can use fertilizers with lower phosphorus contents to balance & return the PH to the soil.

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